Conference delegates agreed. They also decided to divide Germany into autonomous repair zones in the East and West – and thus to remove the country essentially from geographical, political and economic unity. These repair areas then became of the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic. As such, Potsdam was the beginning of the power play between the West and the Soviet Union, which only came to fruition a few years later at the beginning of the Cold War. The most pressing theme of the Potsdam meeting was the fate of post-war Germany. The Soviets wanted a united Germany, but they also insisted that Germany be completely disarmed. Truman, along with a growing number of American officials, had a deep distrust of Soviet intentions in Europe. The massive Soviet army already occupied much of Eastern Europe. A strong Germany could be the only obstacle to Soviet domination over all of Europe.

In the end, the Big Three agreed to divide Germany into three zones of occupation (one for each nation) and postpone discussions on German reunification to a later date. The other remarkable subject in Potsdam was almost unspoken. When he came to the conference, Truman was informed that the United States had successfully tested the first atomic bomb. Hoping to use the weapon as a lever for the Soviets in the post-war world, Truman Stalin incidentally mentioned that America was now in possession of a weapon of monstrous destructive violence. The president was disappointed when the Soviet head of state simply replied that he hoped the United States would use it to quickly end the war with Japan. The main objective of the Potsdam conference was to put an end to the post-war period and to put into practice all that had been agreed in Yalta. While the Yalta meeting was rather friendly, the Potsdam conference was marked by differences of opinion that were the result of some important changes since the Yalta conference. Conference participants discussed the content and procedures of peace agreements in Europe, but did not seek to draft peace agreements. This task has been entrusted to a Council of Foreign Ministers. The main concerns of the Big Three, their foreign ministers and their collaborators were the direct management of defeated Germany, the delimitation of Poland`s borders, the occupation of Austria, the definition of the Soviet Union`s role in Eastern Europe, the determination of reparations and the continuation of the war against Japan. Potsdam lacked apathy and goodwill, which had largely marked previous war conferences, because each nation was most affected by its own interest, and Churchill was especially wary of Stalin`s motivations and uncompromising position.