A new episode of History Lessons has arrived. This time, I am testing the signing of the Munich Convention in the early hours of September 30, 1938. (The agreement itself dates from September 29, 1938. In the video, I talk about the origins of the Crisis on the Sudetenland, what British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain thought he was achieving in his negotiations with Adolf Hitler and why the Munich agreement did not bring “peace for our time”. [Silence] An agreement signed at the Munich Conference in September 1938 handed over the German-speaking country of Sudetenland to Czechoslovakia to Germany. The agreement was reached between Germany, Italy, Great Britain and France. Czechoslovakia was not allowed to attend the conference. In March 1939, six months after the signing of the Munich Agreement, Hitler violated the agreement and destroyed the Czech state. UCLA Film and Television Archive 29-30 September 1938: Germany, Italy, Great Britain and France sign the Munich Agreement by which Czechoslovakia was to cede its border and defensive regions (the so-called Sudetenland) to Nazi Germany.
German troops occupied these territories between 1 and 10 October 1938. The agreement authorizing the annexation of the Sudetenland by Germany was signed on 29 September 1938. The agreement was widely welcomed. French Prime Minister Daladier did not believe, as one scholar put it, that a European war was justified “to keep three million Germans under Czech sovereignty.” But the same is true for Alsace-Lorraine, unlike the alliance between France and Czechoslovakia against German aggression. Gallup Polls, in Britain, France and the United States, said the majority of the population supported the agreement. In 1939, Czechoslovakian President Beneé was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize.  On September 15, 1938, In the face of high tensions between the Germans and the Czechoslovakian government, the heirs secretly proposed giving 6,000 square kilometres to Czechoslovakia to Germany, in exchange for a German accession agreement of 1.5 to 2.0 million South German Germans that would expel Czechoslovakia. Hitler did not respond.  Later in the meeting, a pre-arranged deception was made to influence and pressure Chamberlain: one of Hitler`s accomplices entered the room to inform Hitler of other Germans killed in Czechoslovakia, and Hitler then shouted: “I will avenge each of them. The Czechs must be destroyed.  The meeting ended with Hitler`s refusal to make concessions to the demands of the Allies.  Later that evening, Hitler was concerned that he had gone too far to put pressure on Chamberlain, and he called Chamberlain`s hotel suite to say that he would only accept the annexation of Sudetenland without plans in other areas, provided that Czechoslovakia began evacuating ethnic Chechens from the majority regions of Germany by 8 p.m. on September 26.
After being pushed by Chamberlain, Hitler agreed to issue the ultimatum for October 1 (the same date on which Operation Green was to begin).  Hitler then told Chamberlain that it was a concession he wanted to make to the Prime Minister as a “gift”, out of respect for the fact that Chamberlain was prepared to back down a little from his previous position.  Hitler added that after the annexation of the Sudetenland, Germany would no longer have territorial rights over Czechoslovakia and would enter into a collective agreement to guarantee the borders of Germany and Czechoslovakia.  An agreement was reached on September 29 and at approximately 1:30 a.m.m.